Water hammer is part of the larger subject of transient flow or surge analysis. It is the special case when there is a sudden change in flow velocity. Usually this occurs when a valve closes quickly. Water hammer can generate very high pressure transients which could burst a pipe and can generate pipeline vibrations. The magnitude of the water hammer pressure rise can be calculated using the Joukowsky equation which is

P=ρCU (Pa)

Where

P is the change in pressure

ρ is the fluid density

U is the change in fluid velocity

C is the sonic velocity in the pipe

The sonic velocity is the speed of sound in the pipe and is determined by a modified hooks law formula which takes into account the stiffness of the fluid and the pipe wall.

Where

K Bulk modulus of fluid

E Young’s modulus of pipe material

e Wall thickness of pipe

The sonic velocity is also the speed at which the pressure waves generated by water hammer travel in the pipe.

For water in very stiff pipes the sonic speed could be as high as 1480 m/s. But in some plastic pipe the wave speed can be lower than 200 m/s.

The bulk modulus (k) of water is 2.19x10^{9} Pa however this assumes that the water has no air bubbles in it. Often microscopic size bubbles can be seen suspended in the fluid. This can make a significant difference to the effective bulk modulus and so to the sonic speed. Often with water hammer sub atmospheric pressure and cavitation can also occur (as explained below). This can liberate dissolved air from the water which forms air bubbles reducing the effective bulk modulus and so reducing the wave speed.

^{ }

Valve Closure Example of Water Hammer.

Figure 1 shows the initial conditions in the pipe. The pipe inlet at position A is connected to a header tank which provides the pressure P_{1} to drive the flow in the pipe. The other end of the pipe at position B is open to atmosphere and its pressure is P_{0}

P_{1}=ρgh+P_{0}

The length of the pipe is L.

Figure 2 shows the pipe and flow conditions just after the pipe end at B has been instantaneously closed at time t0. A pressure wave at position X is traveling up the pipe with velocity C (the sonic velocity). The pressure rise across the wave is ρCU (Joukowsky equation). Upstream of position X the velocity is the initial velocity U_{i}. Downstream of X the velocity is 0.

Between X and B the fluid will be compressed and the pipe will be expanded. The rate of pipe volume change and fluid compression is the same as the flow rate upstream of X.

Figure 3 shows the conditions when the pressure wave reaches position A at time t1. The pipeline pressure has been raised by ρCU_{i} and the fluid velocity is 0 throughout. This condition is unstable as the pipe inlet pressure is set by the head of fluid in the inlet tank h. So now the fluid needs to move in the reverse direction from the high pressure pipe into the lower pressure tank. This induces the first wave reflection and it occurs at time t1.

Where t1=t0+L/C

Figure 4 shows the conditions after the first reflection. The pressure wave is at position X and is traveling down the pipe with velocity C. The fluid between positions A and X is traveling in the reverse direction with velocity –U_{i}. The drop in pressure across the wave front is ρC(-U_{i}).

Figure 5 shows the conditions when the pressure wave reaches position B at time t2. The whole of the pipeline pressure has been reduced and the fluid velocity is -U_{i} throughout.

It should be noted there will be a small negative pressure gradient between A & B. This is required to overcome friction between the fluid and pipe as the flow is in the opposite direction. The magnitude of this pressure gradient will usually be significantly smaller than that generated by the change in velocity (Joukowsky equation). This friction gradient is exaggerated in the figure in comparison to water hammer effect for demonstration purposes.

As the end of the pipe at B is closed, this condition is unstable as there is fluid available to sustain the flow. This induces the second wave reflection at time t2.

Where t2=t1+L/C or t2=t0+2L/C.

Figure 6 shows the conditions after the second reflection. The pressure wave is at position X and it is traveling up the pipe with velocity C’. The fluid between positions A and X is still traveling in the reverse direction with velocity –U_{i}. The fluid between X and B has been stopped.

The drop in pressure across the wave front is ρC’(-U_{i}). It should be noted that in this case the wave speed or sonic velocity has been changed from C to C’. C’ may be the same or less than C, it depends on the minimum allowable pressure P3. Negative absolute pressures are not possible. The minimum pressure in the pipe line cannot be less than the vapour pressure of fluid and often the minimum pressure is higher than the vapour pressure because there is dissolved gas in the fluid which comes out of solution as the pressure is reduced. When cavitation occurs or gas comes out of solution the bulk modulus of fluid is reduced form K to K’. It is this reduction bulk modulus that allows the sonic speed to reduce from C to C’ .So all depending on minimum possible pressure the magnitude of C’ will adjust its self so that P3 is not lower than minimum possible pressure.

The formulas for wave speed and the Joukowsky equation are still valid when cavitation occurs but the bulk modulus will have reduced so ensuring consistency in the equations and no impossible pressures.

Figure 7 shows the conditions when the pressure wave reaches position A at time t3. The whole of the pipeline pressure has been reduced to P_{3} and the fluid velocity is 0 throughout. This condition is unstable as the pipe inlet pressure set by the head of fluid in the inlet tank h is higher than the pipe pressure so now the fluid needs to move into the pipe from the header tank. This induces the third wave reflection and it occurs at time t3.

Where t3=t2+L/C’ or t3=t0+2L/C+L/C’

Figure 8 shows the conditions after the third reflection. The pressure wave is at position X, its traveling down the pipe with velocity C’. The fluid between positions A and X is still traveling in the normal direction with velocity U_{i}’. The fluid between X and B is stopped. The velocity in section A to X is shown as U_{i}’ where U_{i}’ is slightly less than U_{i}. By this stage the process has undergone 3 reflections and at every stage some energy is lost so over time the magnitude of the pressure waves and velocities are reducing.

The sonic wave velocity is still the reduced velocity C’ as shown in figure 8. But if previously air or vapour had been liberated from the fluid then the vapour will be re-condense and gas bubbles will reduce in size and may start to go back into solution.

Figure 9 shows the conditions when the pressure wave reaches position B at time t4. As can be seen this is almost identical to the conditions shown in figure 1. The main difference is the velocity Ui’ is a little lower than the original U_{i}. As the end of the pipe is closed there is nowhere for the fluid at B to go. So this will induce the final reflection at time t4 and then the whole process is repeated.

Where t4=t3+L/C’ or t4=t0+2L/C+2L/C’

Figure 10 shows the condition after the forth reflection. The cycle has now began to repeat however the water hammer pressure is now reduced a little from P_{2} (figure 2) to P_{2}’. This reduction in pressure has two causes. The fluid velocity has been reduced due to energy losses.

The sonic velocity C’’ may be less than the original sonic velocity C. If during the previous stages shown in figures 8 and 9 any gas was liberated from the fluid then this gas volume will have been reduced, however it takes time for the gas to be completely reabsorbed so there is likely to be small residual gas bubbles in the fluid. These gas bubbles will reduce the fluid bulk modulus so reducing the sonic speed.

Over a number of cycles the water hammer will eventually peter out. The pipe pressure will end up at P1 and the flow will stop oscillating.

Pingback: Cheap NFL Jerseys Wholesale()

Pingback: Cheap Jerseys Wholesale()

Pingback: Wholesale Cheap Jerseys()

Pingback: Wholesale NFL Jerseys Online()

Pingback: Wholesale NFL Jerseys China()

Pingback: Cheap Jerseys Store()

Pingback: Cheap Vintage NFL Jerseys()

Pingback: Wholesale Jerseys No Tax()

Pingback: Cheap NBA Jerseys From China()

Pingback: Wholesale Jerseys Free Shipping()

Pingback: Cheap NFL Jerseys()

Pingback: Cheap NFL Jerseys Free Shipping()

Pingback: Wholesale Jerseys China()

Pingback: Wholesale Jerseys Free Shipping()

Pingback: Cheap Jerseys Free Shipping()

Pingback: Cheap Jerseys()

Pingback: Cheap MLB Jerseys()

Pingback: Cheap NFL Jerseys China()

Pingback: Wholesale NFL Jerseys Cheap()

Pingback: Wholesale NFL Jerseys Cheap()

Pingback: Cheap China Jerseys()

Pingback: Wholesale NFL Jerseys China()

Pingback: Cheap NFL Jerseys China Free Shipping()

Pingback: Wholesale NFL Jerseys Cheap()

Pingback: Cheap NFL Jerseys Wholesale()

Pingback: Cheap NFL Jerseys Wholesale()

Pingback: Cheap Jerseys Wholesale()

Pingback: Cheap Jerseys China()

Pingback: Cheap Jerseys From China()

Pingback: Wholesale NFL Jerseys China()

Pingback: Cheap Jerseys China()

Pingback: Cheap Wholesale Jerseys()

Pingback: Cheap NFL Jerseys()

Pingback: Cheap Soccer Jerseys Wholesale()

Pingback: Wholesale NFL Jerseys Cheap()

Pingback: Cheap Jerseys China()

Pingback: Trevon Duval Duke Blue Devils Jersey()

Pingback: Ryota Morioka Japan Jersey()

Pingback: John Jaso Jersey()

Pingback: Baltimore Ravens Hats()

Pingback: Blank Australia Jersey()

Pingback: Blake Richmeier College Jersey()

Pingback: Gilbert Perreault Jersey UK()

Pingback: Radamel Falcao World Cup Jersey()

Pingback: Jurgen Damm Mexico Jersey()

Pingback: Denver Broncos John Elway Jersey()

Pingback: Nathan Peterman Jersey()

Pingback: Alonzo Mourning Jersey()

Pingback: John Johnson Jersey()

Pingback: Gregor Blanco Jersey()

Pingback: Kedric Golston Jersey()

Pingback: Kenneth Omeruo Jersey()

Pingback: Cal Ripken Jersey()

Pingback: Ryan Goins Jersey()

Pingback: Kasperi Kapanen Jersey Sale()

Pingback: Chris Kreider Jersey()

Pingback: Cheap Matthias Farley Jersey()

Pingback: Cheap Detroit Lions Jerseys()

Pingback: Custom Charlotte Hornets Jersey()

Pingback: Cheap Jerseys China()

Pingback: JaTarvious Whitlow College Jersey()

Pingback: Bojan Bogdanovic Jersey()

Pingback: Salvador Perez Venezuela Jersey()

Pingback: Brandon Knight Jersey()

Pingback: Kirk Hinrich Jersey()

Pingback: Cheap China Jerseys()

Pingback: Nick Schmaltz Jersey()

Pingback: Cheap Shaquill Griffin Jersey()

Pingback: Mathieu Valbuena France Jersey()

Pingback: Cheap NFL Jerseys China Wholesale()

Pingback: http://www.officialsportsgoods.com/sports/nfl-jerseys/jacksonville-jaguars/cam-robinson-jersey()

Pingback: Cheap Chicago Bulls Jerseys()

Pingback: http://www.worldjerseysshop.com/Cheap-Los-Angeles-Lakers-Luol-Deng-Jersey-Wholesale/()

Pingback: http://www.uknflshop.com/Cheap-Cleveland-Browns-Danny-Shelton-Jersey-Uk/()

Pingback: http://www.uknbashop.com/Cheap-Sacramento-Kings-Anthony-Tolliver-Jersey-Uk/()

Pingback: http://www.soccerukshop.com/cheap-fabian-delph-england-jersey-uk/()

Pingback: http://www.uknhlshop.com/Cheap-Calgary-Flames-Lanny-Mcdonald-Jersey-Uk/()

Pingback: http://www.ukmlbshop.com/Cheap-Baltimore-Orioles-Jim-Palmer-Jersey-Uk/()

Pingback: Cheap Jerseys()

Pingback: Wholesale Jerseys Free Shipping()

Pingback: sirius latest movs24 abdu23na4680 abdu23na5()

Pingback: freshamateurs42 abdu23na6161 abdu23na51()

Pingback: fotbollströjor barn()

Pingback: fotballdrakter barn()

Pingback: maglie calcio()

Pingback: fotballdrakter barn()

Pingback: 2019()

Pingback: cleantalkorg2.ru()

Pingback: #macron #Lassalle()

Pingback: a2019-2020()

Pingback: facebook()

Pingback: facebook1()

Pingback: javsearch.mobi()

Pingback: Yeezy 500 Utility Black()

Pingback: fußballtrikots()

Pingback: Günstige fußballtrikots()

Pingback: maglie calcio bambino()

Pingback: psg trøjer()

Pingback: maglia lazio parolo()

Pingback: fotballdrakter()

Pingback: fotballdrakter barn()

Pingback: maglie calcio poco prezzo()

Pingback: fussball trikot()

Pingback: Google()

Pingback: Rabbit vibrator()

Pingback: Super Mario subscription box()

Pingback: Clit vibrator()

Pingback: Wand massager review()

Pingback: Best couples vibrator()

Pingback: G spot vibrator()

Pingback: realistic vibrator review()

Pingback: Zorgethiek()

Pingback: Sequestri di solito rimettere spontaneamente entro 12 mesi di età: Cause e diagnosi()

Pingback: Comparative Politics and Government()

Pingback: https://roulettemania.blogspot.com/2019/03/awal-mulanya-permainan-togel-sydney.html()

Pingback: sex bondage()

Pingback: yoga mats()

Pingback: Best anal vibrators()

Pingback: 스포츠토토()

Pingback: Exam March 15 Fall 2017. questions()

Pingback: Food coupons()

Pingback: ONGC Requirement()

Pingback: pleasure balls()

Pingback: g spot vibrator()

Pingback: SODIMM geheugen vergekijken()

Pingback: vibrators for women()

Pingback: FIFA Coins()

Pingback: https://myspace.com/montu4891()

Pingback: http://lib.akb.nis.edu.kz/user/montu4891/()

Pingback: Chicago SEO()

Pingback: Chicago SEO()

Pingback: online earn money()

Pingback: detox tea()

Pingback: Social Media Marketing Company in Karachi()

Pingback: hitachi magic wand massager()

Pingback: most powerful wand massager()

Pingback: learn guitar scales()

Pingback: double penetration ring()

Pingback: Pornhub()

Pingback: VIP Desert Safari()

Pingback: rabbit vibrator()

Pingback: Google()

Pingback: chwilówki()

Pingback: outdoor makeover atlanta ga()

Pingback: cheap phone repair near me()

Pingback: huge dildo()

Pingback: real male enhancement()

Pingback: guitar vibrato()

Pingback: Balenciaga()

Pingback: Yeezy()

Pingback: how to use vedo gee slim rechargeable g spot vibrator()

Pingback: Cheap Sports JerseysNFL Jerseys()

Pingback: Nike NBA Jerseys()

Pingback: Nike VaporMax()

Pingback: wild orchid vibrator()

Pingback: prostate vibrator()

Pingback: Porn City XXX()

Pingback: male p spot massager()

Pingback: real feel dong()

Pingback: website()

Pingback: Pandora()

Pingback: real estate agents in somerset west()

Pingback: mail order bride()

Pingback: Nike Air Max 2019()

Pingback: best ways to make money()

Pingback: chicago seo()

Pingback: Yeezys()

Pingback: free xxx()

Pingback: anal toys()

Pingback: Pool()

Pingback: anal sex starter kit()

Pingback: adam and eve love balls()

Pingback: vibrating dildo()

Pingback: fun88()

Pingback: 188bet()

Pingback: pc apps for windows 8()

Pingback: free download for pc()

Pingback: pc games download()

Pingback: software download for windows 10()

Pingback: pc games for windows xp()

Pingback: free download for windows pc()

Pingback: games for pc download()

Pingback: apps for pc download()

Pingback: free download for windows 8()

Pingback: app download for pc()

Pingback: realistic vibrator for lesbian()

Pingback: pc games for windows 10()

Pingback: vacuum pump for men()

Pingback: free games download for windows 8()

Pingback: rijpe vrouw()

Pingback: webcamsex()

Pingback: lieve canzone()

Pingback: креница()

Pingback: auto dealers in houston tx()

Pingback: free download for windows xp()

Pingback: Pandora Jewelry Official Site()

Pingback: sexy gatas na web()

Pingback: thruster rabbit()

Pingback: anal training()

Pingback: pocket masturbator()

Pingback: Biodermal Zonnebrand()

Pingback: bodyboards()

Pingback: NFL Jerseys()

Pingback: cars for sale in Jamaica()

Pingback: pc games for windows 7()

Pingback: free app for pc()

Pingback: free download for windows pc()

Pingback: apps download for windows 7()

Pingback: pc app free download()

Pingback: games for pc download()

Pingback: free download for windows 8()

Pingback: software download for windows 10()

Pingback: play online games()

Pingback: nipple clamp()

Pingback: games for pc download()

Pingback: Nike Zoom()

Pingback: cursos gratuitos()

Pingback: daniels sex toy()

Pingback: rechargeable bullet()

Pingback: wand massager()

Pingback: dildo silicone vibrator()

Pingback: rabbit vibrator()

Pingback: Bàn nâng máy tính()

Pingback: webcambabes()

Pingback: sexe webcam()

Pingback: how to exercise your man to last longer in bed()

Pingback: best male prostate massager()

Pingback: jordan 4()

Pingback: Nike Air Max 2019()

Pingback: thrusting bunny vibe()

Pingback: double headed dildo()

Pingback: couple strapless dildo()

Pingback: green card organization()

Pingback: suction cup dildo()

Pingback: stroker masturbator()

Pingback: greencardorganization()

Pingback: anal vibrator review()

Pingback: realistic vibrator()

Pingback: jordan 4()

Pingback: https://www.movieschor.org/genre/wwe/()

Pingback: свеча горела слова()

Pingback: примиримость()

Pingback: salut перевод()

Pingback: sex toy store()

Pingback: http://www.wikidot.com/user:info/one-world-herald()

Pingback: gay dildo()

Pingback: best pocket stroker()

Pingback: bedroom tour()

Pingback: male enhancement pump()

Pingback: double ended dildo()

Pingback: ΝΤΕΤΕΚΤΙΒ ΑΘΗΝΑ()

Pingback: sex kit()

Pingback: cal exotics dildo()

Pingback: how to clean your bum()

Pingback: air jordan shoes()

Pingback: anal trainer kit()

Pingback: easy approval loans()

Pingback: Cheap pharmacy pills()

Pingback: dong()

Pingback: cash for scrap cars surrey()

Pingback: jordan shoes()

Pingback: earn money online()

Pingback: большой кадык()

Pingback: flippers lotusblume()

Pingback: я твой номер один()

Pingback: double penetration ring()

Pingback: Steelers Jerseys Cheap()

Pingback: ben wa balls review()

Pingback: rabbit vibrator review()

Pingback: big dildo review()

Pingback: types of detectors used in ac bridges()

Pingback: anal sex lub()

Pingback: Cheap Yeezy Boost()

Pingback: vaginal tightening()

Pingback: vibrating panty()

Pingback: erection rings()

Pingback: steroids online pharmacy()

Pingback: balenciaga speed trainer()

Pingback: satta matka()

Pingback: pocket vagina()

Pingback: bullet and egg vibrator()

Pingback: best pocket pussy()

Pingback: huge dildo review()

Pingback: PPC services west palm beach()

Pingback: top rated vibrators()

Pingback: rechargeable bullet vibrator()

Pingback: dilator()

Pingback: anal trainer kit()

Pingback: nipple toys()

Pingback: porn land()

Pingback: gucci belt()

Pingback: dp fantasy ring()

Pingback: vibrating penis()

Pingback: jockstrap()

Pingback: Minoxidil with tretinoin()

Pingback: adam and eve sex toys()

Pingback: Yeezy()

Pingback: https://harness4.com/best-climbing-harness/()

Pingback: off white clothing()

Pingback: true feel dildo()

Pingback: jobsite()

Pingback: pocket pussy()

Pingback: NFL Jerseys Wholesale()

Pingback: Nike Element 87()

Pingback: Travis Scott Jordan 1()

Pingback: www.skipbinhireau.com()

Pingback: SSRU()

Pingback: rechargeable rabbit vibrator()

Pingback: large dong()

Pingback: rechargeable bullet()

Pingback: black dong()

Pingback: new vibrators()

Pingback: paddle sex()

Pingback: best remote control vibrating panties()

Pingback: hermes handbags()

Pingback: unboxing bondage sex toys()

Pingback: bullet vibrator()

Pingback: https://web-design-brisbane.com/()

Pingback: school spullen()

Pingback: Google()

Pingback: porn()

Pingback: suction cup dildo movie()

Pingback: Body stockings()

Pingback: viagra()

Pingback: Hundeudstyr()

Pingback: michael kors()

Pingback: helpful resources()

Pingback: Julia Ann()

Pingback: https://se.mut.ac.ke/staff/teaching-staffs.html()

Pingback: https://www.zarplata-online.ru/rubrika/192-trudovoy-dogovor()

Pingback: Fashion Station()

Pingback: Fashion Station()

Pingback: Pool Repair()

Pingback: fila shoes()

Pingback: sexboer()

Pingback: أشرطة الفيديو الاباحية()

Pingback: geile sex filmpjes()

Pingback: porno files()

Pingback: gratis films()

Pingback: plumber waterbury ct()

Pingback: liteblue login()

Pingback: hd iptv m3u playlist()

Pingback: https://www.uspslitebluelogin.net/()

Pingback: homemade dildo porn()

Pingback: vapormax()

Pingback: Yeezy Boost 350()

Pingback: colorful dildo()

Pingback: finger sex()

Pingback: california vibrator()

Pingback: длинник()

Pingback: слова песни я вернусь()

Pingback: russian translation hello()

Pingback: wekend getaway()

Pingback: russian translation hello()

Pingback: penis enlargement()

Pingback: nipple clamping()

Pingback: plus size dildo()

Pingback: pandora outlet()

Pingback: مساج الدقي()

Pingback: https://yandex.ru/search/?lr=113262&text=pornlandxxx()

Pingback: Bluechew reviews()

Pingback: https://yandex.com/search/?text=pornlandxxx&lr=113262()

Pingback: Don Karl Juravin Reviews()

Pingback: pregnancy symtoms week by week()

Pingback: ormekur hvalpe hvornår()

Pingback: Healthy salty snacks()

Pingback: boite outlook()

Pingback: pink vibrator()

Pingback: bdsm kit()

Pingback: Philadelphia Elibrary()

Pingback: best bondage toys()

Pingback: bondage sex toys()

Pingback: bjs hours()

Pingback: سكس جماعي عنيف()

Pingback: new zealand education consultants in delhi()

Pingback: 1Pro shipping (604) 721-4555()

Pingback: coquitlam appliance repairs (604) 404-1677()

Pingback: فني ستلايت مبارك الكبير()

Pingback: top best sex toys()

Pingback: anal lubricant()

Pingback: best sex toys for clit()

Pingback: podcast()

Pingback: poker online terpercaya()

Pingback: Event transportation()

Pingback: city to city ride()

Pingback: adam and eve g gasm rabbit()

Pingback: how to use vibrator()

Pingback: oral sex()

Pingback: penis rings()

Pingback: home decor terms()

Pingback: cal exotic vibrator()

Pingback: Remove The Background From An Image Online Free Without PhotoShop()

Pingback: csgo hvh paste()

Pingback: Hotmail login()

Pingback: hasta yatağı fiyatları()

Pingback: 15% minoxidil()

Pingback: قمبل دات کام()

Pingback: online marketing()

Pingback: jockstrap with pouch()

Pingback: best pocket stroker()

Pingback: döner hamburg()

Pingback: save sea turtle necklace()

Pingback: where to buy gay sex toys()

Pingback: Awaydays()

Pingback: vibrating ring()

Pingback: masturbator()

Pingback: iraniporn()

Pingback: xxx()

Pingback: YtMp3()

Pingback: gay sex toys online()

Pingback: prostate massager()

Pingback: proven roulette system()

Pingback: Paroli Baccarat Strategy()

Pingback: blackjack system tester()

Pingback: onewalmart()

Pingback: security()

Pingback: ssni 542()

Pingback: mvsd 397()

Pingback: how to use a rabbit vibrator()

Pingback: gay anal training kit()

Pingback: rabbit vibrator()

Pingback: silicone anal plugs()

Pingback: اب ينيك ابنته()

Pingback: real family taboo homemade()

Pingback: Follower()

Pingback: Lifestyle news()

Pingback: south coast seo()

Pingback: how to introduce toys in bed()

Pingback: sewa pa system shah alam()

Pingback: تحميل برنامج تروكولر()

Pingback: gay anal()

Pingback: how to prepare for anal()

Pingback: mẫu bàn làm việc đứng()

Pingback: https://www.prepaidgiftbalance.site/www-prepaidgiftbalance-com()

Pingback: 192.168.1.1 admin login()

Pingback: nipple chain()

Pingback: Virtual Account()

Pingback: سکس عاشقانه()

Pingback: CAWD-005()

Pingback: money exchanger()

Pingback: suction cup dildo()

Pingback: gay porn cock ring()

Pingback: boy jockstraps()

Pingback: guitar solo lick()

Pingback: siofok siofok siofok siofok()

Pingback: mastercard credit card buy()

Pingback: where to buy male masturbators()

Pingback: full apps download()

Pingback: apps download for windows 8()

Pingback: pc games free download for windows 10()

Pingback: pc games for windows xp()

Pingback: free download for windows 7()

Pingback: free download for windows 10()

Pingback: vcc buy()

Pingback: free full download for windows()

Pingback: pc games download()

Pingback: uk number for whatsapp verification()

Pingback: free download for pc()

Pingback: games for pc download()

Pingback: pc games download for windows 7()

Pingback: exotic carts flavors()

Pingback: 田園都市線 路線図 半蔵門()

Pingback: Eweka()

Pingback: minyak kelapa murni()

Pingback: performing blow job()

Pingback: need money for college()

Pingback: saskatoon tree services()

Pingback: paypal verification.()

Pingback: one.walmart.com()

Pingback: kingpen carts()

Pingback: العاب()

Pingback: stiiizy pods()

Pingback: dank cartridges,()

Pingback: stiiizy pods()

Pingback: Family Lawyer Sydney()

Pingback: Dank Vapes()

Pingback: Dank Vapes()

Pingback: THC vape juice discreet shipping()

Pingback: THC vape oil For sale()

Pingback: Teen Swallow Cum()

Pingback: event planning kenya()

Pingback: Order cannabis()

Pingback: Tramadol for Dog()

Pingback: digital advertising()

Pingback: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07W6SP89N/ref=sr_1_1?keywords=books+best+sellers&qid=1565320651&s=digital-text&sr=1-1()

Pingback: Chinese Baccarat Strategy()

Pingback: Blackjack System Card()

Pingback: Proven Roulette Strategy()

Pingback: Tramadol For Sale()

Pingback: ABP 898()

Pingback: runelite()

Pingback: mygiftcardsite()

Pingback: MEYD-525()

Pingback: Beautiful t shirts()

Pingback: 618media.com()

Pingback: http://thefrenchsupply.com()

Pingback: Corporate Park Cleaning Sydney()

Pingback: adam and eve()

Pingback: prostate vibrator()

Pingback: Ioe business()

Pingback: Ccleaner Crack()

Pingback: buy temazepam()

Pingback: MyFedloan()

Pingback: super gay underwear()

Pingback: bondage sex()

Pingback: lube for gay men()

Pingback: Edinburgh whisky()

Pingback: Judi Slot Online()

Pingback: سكس رومانسي مترجم()

Pingback: enema valve()

Pingback: best male masturbator()

Pingback: text your ex back pdf()

Pingback: SEO Vancouver()

Pingback: mexican restaurant nearby()

Pingback: https://newbizhelp.org/my-interserver-review-inexpensive-web-hosting-and-more/()

Pingback: daftar joker123()

Pingback: GVG-941()

Pingback: sex toys for women()

Pingback: best sex toys()

Pingback: free download for windows pc()

Pingback: rechargeable bullet()

Pingback: free download for windows 10()

Pingback: pc games for windows xp()

Pingback: apps download for pc()

Pingback: pc software full download()

Pingback: pc games for windows 10()

Pingback: pc apps for windows 7()

Pingback: free download for windows 10()

Pingback: best pegging strap on()

Pingback: anal training toys()

Pingback: Web Forms()

Pingback: milfgilf()

Pingback: crazybulk estafa()

Pingback: XVSR-501()

Pingback: DOCP-172()

Pingback: sewa led()

Pingback: king James()